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The Composition of the Historical Books. From Joshua to 2 Kings (Third part)

The multiplication of dtr editors has made many scholars skeptical about the very existence of deuteronomic history. The problem is essentially the concept of “historiography” and the coherence of the dtr work. The “dtr” history can not be termed in any way, since it still belongs to the mythical genus…

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The Pentateuch – Introduction (First part)

Jews call the sacred text “TANAK,” an acronym composed by the first letters of the three parts of  the Hebrew Bible: the Torah (the Law), Nevi’im (The Prophets), Ketuvim (The Writings). The Torah corresponds exactly to our Pentateuch (Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy). The Prophets are divided into “former prophets” and “latter prophets”. The former…

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The Composition of the Pentateuch: A New Theory (First part)

Although the book of Deuteronomy is located at the end of the Pentateuch it plays a central role in the formation of the Pentateuch. Substantially Deuteronomy invites the readers to remember (in Heb. zaqar) and to listen (in Heb. shama) the commands given by God to Moses and to observe them in everyday…

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The Pentateuch: A Long History of Study and Research (Sixth part)

The source P. This “source” presents a considerable amount of difficulties. At first it was called Elohist (by the French physician Jean Astruc), then “priestly code” (hence the initials “P”) or “priestly tradition”. Classically it is believed that P has represented the last editorial phase of the Pentateuch, giving it the…

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The Pentateuch: A Long History of Study and Research (Fourth part)

The Elohist. This source is called Elohist because before the Sinai’s accounts God is always called Elohim. In the early stages of research on the Pentateuch it was regarded as the most important source, as was attributed to this source what will be later assigned to the source P. It is the…

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The Pentateuch: A Long History of Study and Research (Third part)

Source Yahwist (J).  This source is related to the first documentary hypothesis also called “Graf-Wellhausen hypothesis”. It is based on the presence of YHWH name starting from the chapter of Genesis 1-3. The source’s tone is light and free, and it begins from creation to reach the Davidic kingdom. The dating is very…

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Tetrateuch, Exateuch, Enneateuch or Pentateuch (Second Part)

Despite all these proposals we have set out, the best and the most critically founded is to consider the Pentateuch in its present shape, the one we find in our Bibles. The Pentateuch consists of five parts: Genesis, Exodus, Numbers, Leviticus, Deuteronomy. This solution is based on several elements. The division…

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Tetrateuch, Exateuch, Enneateuch or Pentateuch? (First Part)

The Pentateuch, in its canonical form, namely the form officially accepted by Jews and Christians, is composed of five books. However, over time, scholars have proposed other theories. Tetrateuch: the supporters of this theory (Ivan Engnell 1906-1964 and Martin Noth 1902-1968) think that the first part of the Hebrew Bible was…

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The Pope Francis’ Encyclical letter on Ecology (Fifth part)

Today we resume the comment of the biblical reflections contained in the Encyclical letter “Laudato si’” of Pope Francis: 69. Together with our obligation to use the earth’s goods responsibly, we are called to recognize that other living beings have a value of their own in God’s eyes: “by their mere existence…

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