Abyss and darkness (Genesis chap. 1, verse 2)


The second sentence of the first chapter of the Bible is usually translated as: and darkness covered the abyss. There are two words that need to be explained, or better to say, they need to be imagined. The ancient Jews, in fact, didn’t use concepts or ideas to figure reality, …

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Heaven and earth (Genesis chap. 1, verse. 1)


The fourth and the fifth word of the Hebrew Bible – et hashamaìm weet haàrets – are generally translated in our Bibles with the words: heaven and earth. Whereas we have two different terms with two specific meanings, for Jews “heaven and earth” constituted a single phrase that means the …

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The Composition of the Pentateuch: A New Theory (Third part)

The elements of  the so-called Deuteronomism are the centralization of worship in the Temple of Jerusalem, the confession of faith in JHWH, the search for identity of Israel and the corresponding uniqueness of the Law. The phenomenon called “Deuteronomism” is the fundamental reform that led the formation of Judaism of the times …

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How to unterstand the Bible – Jesus Anointed by a Sinful Woman (Lk 7:36-50)


The Gospels don’t offer the slightest pretext to identify the sinful/adulterous woman with Mary Magdalene (for the Luke’s text click here). The identification of Mary Magdalene with the sinful woman was made Jacobus de Voragine in his Legenda Aurea. Luke (ch. 8:2) just says that Mary Magdalene was possessed by “seven evil spirits”, before …

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Elohim: God or gods? (Genesis chap. 1, verse 1)


The third word of the Hebrew Bible is Elohim: “Bereshìt barà Elohim …” “At the beginning God created … “. So, at the very beginning of the Hebrew Bible we find a reference to polytheism? The verb barà (created) is singular, so the author was convinced that there was only …

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